In this article, we will focus on the `random`

module of NumPy, which allows us to generate random numbers and perform random operations in a variety of ways.

## Table of Contents

## Generating NumPy Array of Random Integers

To generate random integers between a specified range, you can use the `randint()`

function. Here’s an example of generating a single random integer between 0 and 50:

import numpy as np # Generate a single random integer between 0 and 99 num = np.random.randint(0, 99) print(num)

**Output:**

77

### Reproducibility with Seed

When you need reproducible results, setting the seed is important. The `np.random.seed`

function initializes the random number generator:

np.random.seed(42) # Now the random numbers generated will be the same in any run.

For example, in the code below, we will try to fetch a random number four times. Each time, we will use the same seed value; therefore, we will get the same random number all four times.

import numpy as np np.random.seed(42) # Generate a single random integer between 0 and 99 num = np.random.randint(0, 99) print(num) np.random.seed(42) # Generate a single random integer between 0 and 99 num = np.random.randint(0, 99) print(num) np.random.seed(42) # Generate a single random integer between 0 and 99 num = np.random.randint(0, 99) print(num) np.random.seed(42) # Generate a single random integer between 0 and 99 num = np.random.randint(0, 99) print(num)

**Output:**

51 51 51 51

We got the same random number all four times because the seed value was the same for each random number. If you remove the seed() function call from the above code, you will get four different random numbers.

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## Creating NumPy Array of Random Integers

You can also generate a NumPy array of random integers by passing an extra argument `size`

in the `randint()`

function. The `size`

argument denotes the shape of the array that you want to create, filled with random numbers. If you want to create a 1D NumPy array with some N random values, then set size as N. If you want to create a 2D NumPy array with 4 rows and 3 columns, then set size as (4,3). For example:

import numpy as np np.random.seed(0) # Create a NumPy Array of 10 random integers arr = np.random.randint(0, 50, size=10) print(arr)

**Output:**

[44 47 0 3 3 39 9 19 21 36]

Here, we created a NumPy Array of 10 random integers.

## Creating NumPy Array with Uniform Distribution

Generating numbers that are uniformly distributed across a range is a common task in statistics, simulations, and various types of modeling. In NumPy, this can be efficiently done using the `np.random.uniform`

function. This function generates samples from a uniform distribution over a specified interval.

A uniform distribution, in the simplest terms, refers to a probability distribution where every number within a certain range is equally likely to occur. If you imagine plotting the distribution, it would appear as a flat line, indicating that no value within the range is any more likely than another.

Here’s an example of how to use `np.random.uniform`

to generate 10 random numbers between 0 and 1:

import numpy as np # Generate 10 random numbers uniformly distributed between 0 and 1 arr = np.random.uniform(0, 1, size=10) print(arr)

**Output:**

[0.37272705 0.09658273 0.98818703 0.7060652 0.52515426 0.32652724 0.26448179 0.97768895 0.04380171 0.53666404]

The output will be different every time you run this code because it generates random numbers.

The function call `np.random.uniform(0, 1, size=10)`

generates an array of 10 numbers. The parameters `0`

and `1`

specify the lower and upper limits of the range, and `size=10`

specifies the number of samples to generate.

### Normal Distribution

For normally distributed numbers (Gaussian distribution), use the `normal`

function:

import numpy as np arr = np.random.normal(loc=0, scale=1, size=1000) print(arr)

The `loc`

parameter specifies the mean and the `scale`

specifies the standard deviation.

### Visualizing Distributions

To visualize these distributions, you might use `matplotlib`

:

import matplotlib.pyplot as plt import numpy as np # For uniform distribution plt.hist(np.random.uniform(0, 1, size=10000), bins=50, alpha=0.7, label='Uniform') # For normal distribution plt.hist(np.random.normal(0, 1, size=10000), bins=50, alpha=0.7, label='Normal') plt.legend() plt.show()

IMAGE

## Shuffling NumPy Arrays

The `shuffle()`

function can be used to randomly shuffle elements in an array:

import numpy as np # Create a numpy array of 10 # integers from 1 to 9 arr = np.arange(10) # Shuffle the elements in NumPy Array np.random.shuffle(arr) print(arr)

Output:

[9 6 5 2 7 4 8 3 1 0]

## Summary

In this tutorial, we’ve covered how to generate random integers, use seeds for reproducibility, generate uniformly and normally distributed numbers, visualize these distributions, and shuffle arrays using NumPy’s `random`

module.